Boron compounds are widely used in a range of tribological applications such as friction modifiers, antioxidants, antiwear additives, and in many cases as environmentally friendly lubricants. The chemical nature and structure of boron compounds provide multifunctionality. They are used as (1) solid lubricants such as boric acid and hexagonal boron nitride, (2) liquid lubricants such as ionic liquids, (3) lubricant additives such as borate derivatives of various organic and inorganic compounds, and (4) coatings such as cubic boron nitride and different metal borides. Boron is also one of the most favorable elements for coatings and thin films in biotribological and biomedical applications. This review outlines the growing role of boron in lubrication over the past several decades, summarizes
the main findings, and identifies future challenges related to boron chemistry.