Mineralogical influence on leaching behaviour of steelmaking slags: a laboratory investigation

Publikation: ForskningDoktorsavhandling

Nedladdad 2 036 gånger


The Swedish steelmaking industry produces large amounts of by-products. In 2008, the total amount of slag produced reached approximately 1,300,000 metric tons, of which 20% was deposited. Due to its strength, durability and chemistry, steel slag is of interest in the field of construction, since it has similar or better qualities than ordinary ballast stone, which makes it a competitive construction material. However, some steel slags face an array of quality concerns that might hinder their use. These concerns generally involve the following physical and chemical properties:
Volume expansion Disintegration Leaching of metals

By controlling and modifying process parameters during slag handling in liquid state, the physical and chemical properties of steel slags can be adequately modified to obtain a high-quality product for external application. The present work was undertaken as a research project within the Minerals and Metals Recycling Research Centre, MiMeR. The major goal of this work has been to investigate how different treatment methods including hot stage processing, cooling rates, ageing time and chemical composition influence the final properties of the slag. Analysis techniques used in this investigation include: thermodynamic calculations using FactsageTM, X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), leaching tests (EN12457-2/3) and thermo-gravimetric analyses (TG).

The results from this study show that it is possible to control/change the properties of the final product by additions to the liquid slag, thereby changing the chemical composition, as well as by varying the rate and method of cooling. The mineralogical composition, the size of the crystals and the composition of some solid solutions are affected by the cooling rate. The solubility of elements such as chromium and molybdenum varies, probably due to their presence in different minerals. The reactivity of the investigated slag samples increases as the cooling rate increases.

When steel slags are aged, the leaching properties of the materials are changed. The total leachability and the pH decrease for all the investigated samples. All elements except magnesium decrease in leachability. As the slags are aged CaCO3 is formed on the slag surfaces.

The degree of carbonation differs between different slags, due to the presence of different calcium-rich minerals in the slag. In order to form CaCO3, the calcium-containing mineral must be dissolved. This means that the solubility of the calcium-containing mineral will affect the outcome of the carbonation. The rate of dissolution for six typical slag minerals was investigated in order to distinguish the difference in solubility between the different minerals. Acidic to alkaline pHs (4, 7 and 10) were selected to investigate the solubility of the minerals under conditions comparable to those prevailing in newly produced slags and the potential future pH values obtained under acid conditions. It can be concluded that all six minerals behave differently when dissolving and that the rate of dissolution is generally slower at higher pH. At pH 10, the solubility of merwinite, akermanite and gehlenite is considered slow. The dissolution of γ-Ca2SiO4 is not affected in the same way as the other minerals when the pH is changed.
!!Place of PublicationLuleå
UtgivareLuleå tekniska universitet
ISBN (print)978-91-7439-197-8
StatusPublicerad - 2010
SerieDoctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology
ISBN (print)1402-1544

Anteckning ang. avhandling


Ämnesområde: Processmetallurgi/Process Metallurgy

Opponent: Professor Pekka Taskinen, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering,
Aalto University, Finland

Ordförande: Professor Bo Björkman, Institutionen för TKG, Avd för mineralteknik och metallurgi, Luleå tekniska universitet

Tid: Fredag den 4 februari 2011, kl 10.00

Plats: F341, Luleå tekniska universitet